Category Archives: LIBGuides

Interwar Years- Project

The Interwar Years- 1920’s-1930’s

References:  and

During the World wars and Interwar Years Canada experienced economic gain, more freedom for women and new technological advancements.

During the war, the woman’s suffrage movement gained support. The provinces began extending voting rights to women in 1916, and women were finally allowed to vote in federal elections in 1918. Canada was also faced with the return of thousands of soldiers, with few jobs waiting for them at home. They also brought back with them the Spanish Flu, which killed over 50 000 people by 1919, almost the same number that had been killed in the war.

Crowd gathered outside old City Hall during the Winnipeg General Strike, June 21, 1919

The move from a wartime to a peacetime economy, combined with the unwillingness of returned soldiers to accept pre-war working conditions, led to another crisis.

Resources to try:

KSS Library online> Databases> EBSCO or eLibrary …

KSS Library online> Reference> Canadian Ecyclopedia or Canadian Discovery Portal ….

Poverty Stricken

Poverty -Dorothea Lange.  California

Poverty -Dorothea Lange. California

During the Great Depression thousands of families left their homes in the ‘dust bowl’ of the Midwest, where they could no longer make a living through agriculture, and headed to California where they hoped to find employment and build a better future. Many of them found that the situation in California was little better than at home and found work hard to come by, although the New Deal work creation schemes offered some opportunities for relieving unemployment. The tale of one migrant family during the Great Depression was immortalized by John Steinbeck in his novel The Grapes of Wrath.( eLibrary, History Study)

Image © Getty Images

A Flapper’s Life


‘Flappers’ were women who cut their hair short, wore short skirts and make-up, and went out dancing to jazz music. These young women felt themselves to be part of a newly-emancipated generation, rebelling against the Victorian values of their parents and enjoying new social freedoms. They defied the conventions of what had been acceptable behaviour for a woman, smoking cigarettes and driving cars. The image of the ‘flapper’ symbolised these new morals and freedom for women in the 1920s.( eLibrary, History Study )

Image © Getty Images

Some information on the twenties in Canada can be found in the following video)
Watch the following from approximately 4:48 to7:13 (it says not available in Canada, but the description looks apt. Perhaps you can work around the unavailability and gain access somehow?)
Image gallery: (this isn’t a video, but it includes relevant images)
National Film Board of Canada (does talk about the difficulties incurred right after the Great War, but it later goes into the twenties; check around 12:00)
2-part video (focus on the cultural aspect – consumerism, innovations, entertainment, etc.)
A podcast about the “noise” of the twenties (again, something to bring a different perspective to the students’ understanding):
Another one that focuses on the twenties culture:


“The Great Depression, 1929-1939.” History Study Centre. ProQuest LLC. 2010.
Web. 27 Nov. 2014 < > … a study
unit set…

“Canada in the World Wars and Interwar Years.” Wikipedia., n.d.
Web. 27 Nov. 2014. <

Half Way to Ottawa. Access Learning. 2014. Access Learning. 27 November 2014 <;

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Bookriot… Reblog : criticism vs censor

“@catagator: Let’s talk about the differences between “criticism” and “censorship,” over at Book Riot:”

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Teens and popular social media…

A summary of a few popular platforms:

1. Twitter is a microblogging site that allows users to post brief, 140-character messages — called “tweets” — and follow other users’ activities.
Why it’s popular
Teens like using it to share quick tidbits about their lives with friends. It’s also great for keeping up with what’s going on in the world — breaking news, celebrity gossip, etc.
What parents need to know
Public tweets are the norm for teens. Though you can choose to keep your tweets private, most teens report having public accounts (Pew Internet & American Life Project, 2013). Talk to your kids about what they post and how a post can spread far and fast.
Updates appear immediately. Even though you can remove tweets, your followers can still read what you wrote until it’s gone. This can get kids in trouble if they say something in the heat of the moment.
It’s a promotional tool for celebs. Twitter reels teens in with behind-the-scenes access to celebrities’ lives, adding a whole new dimension to celebrity worship. You may want to point out how much marketing strategy goes into the tweets of those they admire.


2. Instagram is a platform that lets users snap, edit, and share photos and 15-second videos — either publicly or with a network of followers.
Why it’s popular
Instagram unites the most popular features of social media sites: sharing, seeing, and commenting on photos. Instagram also lets you apply fun filters and effects to your photos, making them look high quality and artistic.
What parents need to know
Teens are on the lookout for “Likes.” Similar to Facebook, teens may measure the “success” of their photos — even their self-worth — by the number of likes or comments they receive. Posting a photo or video can be problematic if teens post it to validate their popularity.
Public photos are the default. Photos and videos shared on Instagram are public and may have location information unless privacy settings are adjusted. Hashtags can make photos even more visible to communities beyond a teen’s followers.
Mature content can slip in. The terms of service specify that users should be at least 13 years old and shouldn’t post partially nude or sexually suggestive photos — but they don’t address violence, swear words, or drugs.

3. Snapchat is a messaging app that lets users put a time limit on the pictures and videos they send before they disappear.
Why it’s popular
Snapchat’s creators intended the app’s fleeting images to be a way for teens to share fun, light moments without the risk of having them go public. And that’s what most teens use it for: sending goofy or embarrassing photos to one another. Snapchats also seem to send and load much “faster” than email or text.
What parents need to know
Many schools have yet to block it, which is one reason why teens like it so much (Pew Internet & American Life Project, 2013).
It’s a myth that Snapchats go away forever. Data is data: Whenever an image is sent, it never truly goes away. (For example, the person on the receiving end can take a screenshot of the image before it disappears.) Snapchats can even be recovered.
It can make sexting seem OK. The seemingly risk-free messaging might encourage users to share pictures containing inappropriate content.

4. Tumblr is like a cross between a blog and Twitter: It’s a streaming scrapbook of text, photos, and/or videos and audio clips. Users create and follow short blogs, or “tumblelogs,” that can be seen by anyone online (if made public).
Why it’s popular
Many teens have tumblrs for personal use — sharing photos, videos, musings, and things they find funny with their friends. Tumblelogs with funny memes and gifs often go viral online, as well (case in point: “Texts from Hillary”).
What parents need to know
Porn is easy to find. This online hangout is hip and creative but sometimes raunchy. Pornographic images and videos, depictions of violence, self-harm, drug use, and offensive language are easily searchable.
Privacy can be guarded, but only through an awkward workaround. The first profile a member creates is public and viewable by anyone on the Internet. Members who desire full privacy have to create a second profile, which they’re able to password protect.
Posts are often copied and shared. Reblogging on Tumblr is similar to re-tweeting: A post that’s reblogged from one tumblelog then appears on another. Many teens like — and in fact, want — their posts reblogged. But do you really want your kids’ words and photos on someone else’s page?

5. Google+ is Google’s social network, which is now open to teens. It has attempted to improve on Facebook’s friend concept — using “circles” that give users more control about what they share with whom.
Why it’s popular
Teens aren’t wild about Google+ yet. But many feel that their parents are more accepting of it because they associate it with schoolwork. One popular aspect of Google+ is the addition of real-time video chats in Hangouts (virtual gatherings with approved friends).
What parents need to know
Teens can limit who sees certain posts by using “circles.” Friends, acquaintances, and the general public can all be placed in different circles. If you’re friends with your kid on Google+, know that you may be in a different “circle” than their friends (and therefore seeing different information).
Google+ takes teens’ safety seriously. Google+ created age-appropriate privacy default settings for any users whose registration information shows them to be teens. It also automatically reminds them about who may be seeing their posts (if they’re posting on public or extended circles).
Data tracking and targeting are concerns. Google+ activity (what you post and search for and who you connect with) is shared across Google services including Gmail and YouTube. This information is used for targeting ads to the user. Users can’t opt out of this type of sharing across Google services.

6. Vine is a social media app that lets users post and watch looping six-second video clips. This Twitter-owned service has developed a unique community of people who post videos that are often creative and funny — and sometimes thought-provoking.
Why it’s popular
Videos run the gamut from stop-motion clips of puzzles doing and undoing themselves to six-second skits showing how a teen wakes up on a school day vs. a day during summer. Teens usually use Vine to create and share silly videos of themselves and/or their friends and family.
What parents need to know
It’s full of inappropriate videos. In three minutes of random searching, we came across a clip full of full-frontal male nudity, a woman in a fishnet shirt with her breasts exposed, and people blowing marijuana smoke into each other’s mouths. There’s a lot of funny, clever expression on Vine, but much of it isn’t appropriate for kids.
There are significant privacy concerns. The videos you post, the accounts you follow, and the comments you make on videos are all public by default. But you can adjust your settings to protect your posts; only followers will see them, and you have to approve new followers.
Parents can be star performers (without knowing). If your teens film you being goofy or silly, you may want to talk about whether they plan to share it.

7. Wanelo (Want, Need, Love) combines shopping, fashion blogging, and social networking all in one. It’s very popular among teens, allowing them to discover, share, and buy products they like.
Why it’s popular
Teens keep up with the latest styles by browsing Wanelo’s “trending” feed, which aggregates the items that are most popular across the site. They can also cultivate their own style through the “My Feed” function, which displays content from the users, brands, and stores they follow.
What parents need to know
If you like it, you can buy it. Users can purchase almost anything they see on Wanelo by clicking through to products’ original sites. As one user tweeted, “#Wanelo you can have all of my money! #obsessed.”
Brand names are prominent. Upon registering, users are required to follow at least three “stores” (for example, Forever21 or Marc Jacobs) and at least three “people” (many are other everyday people in Wanelo’s network, but there are also publications like Seventeen magazine).
There’s plenty of mature clothing. You may not love what kids find and put on their wish lists. Wanelo could lead to even more arguments over what your teen can and can’t wear.

8. Kik Messenger is an app-based alternative to standard texting that kids use for social networking. It’s free to use but has lots of ads.
Why it’s popular
It’s fast and has no message limits, character limits, or fees if you just use the basic features, making it decidedly more fun in many ways than SMS texting.
What parents need to know
It’s too easy to “copy all.” Kik’s ability to link to other Kik-enabled apps within itself is a way to drive “app adoption” (purchases) from its users for developers. The app also encourages new registrants to invite everyone in their phone’s address book to join Kik, since users can only message those who also have the app.
There’s some stranger danger. An app named OinkText, linked to Kik, allows communication with strangers who share their Kik usernames to find people to chat with. There’s also a Kik community blog where users can submit photos of themselves and screenshots of messages (sometimes displaying users’ full names) to contests.
It uses real names. Teens’ usernames identify them on Kik, so they shouldn’t use their full real name as their username.

9. Oovoo is a free video, voice, and messaging app. Users can have group chats with up to six people for free (and up to 12 for a premium fee).
Why it’s popular
Teens mostly use Oovoo to hang out with friends. Many log on after school and keep it up while doing homework. Oovoo can be great for group studying and it makes it easy for kids to receive “face to face” homework help from classmates.
What parents need to know
You can only chat with approved friends. Users can only communicate with those on their approved “contact list,” which can help ease parents’ safety concerns.
It can be distracting. Because the service makes video chatting so affordable and accessible, it can also be addicting. A conversation with your kids about multitasking may be in order.
Kids still prefer in-person communication. Though apps like Oovoo make it easier than ever to video chat with friends, research shows that kids still value face-to-face conversations over online ones — especially when it comes to sensitive topics. Still, they sometimes find it hard to log off when all of their friends are on.

10. Pheed is best described as a hybrid of Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and YouTube — except that you can require others to pay a premium to access your personal channel.
Why it’s popular
Pheed’s multimedia “all in one” offering seems to be capturing teens’ attention the most. Some teens also like the fact that they have more control over ownership and copyright, since Pheed allows its users to watermark their original content.
What parents need to know
It’s hot! According to Forbes, Pheed has swiftly become the No. 1 free social app in the App Store, thanks in large part to teens. Time will tell whether artists and celebrities will jump on the bandwagon and start using Pheed to promote themselves and charge their fans to view what they post.
Users can make money. Users can charge others a subscription fee to access their content, ranging from $1.99 to $34.99 per view, or the same price range per month. Note that a cut of all proceeds goes to Pheed.
Privacy updates are in the works. Kids should be aware that their posts are currently public by default and therefore searchable online.

11. is a social site that lets kids ask questions and answer those posted by other users — sometimes anonymously.
Why it’s popular
Although there are some friendly interactions on — Q&As about favorite foods or crushes, for example — there are lots of mean comments and some creepy sexual posts. This iffy content is part of the site’s appeal for teens.
What parents need to know
Bullying is a major concern. The British news website MailOnline reported that the site has been linked to the suicides of several teens. Talk to your teens about cyberbullying and how anonymity can encourage mean behavior.
Anonymous answers are optional. Users can decide whether to allow anonymous posts and can remove their answers from streaming to decrease their profile’s visibility. If your teens do use the site, they’d be best turning off anonymous answers and keeping themselves out of the live stream.
Q&As can appear on Facebook. Syncing with Facebook means that a much wider audience can see those Q&As.

Central Okanagan Teacher-Librarians’ Association (COTLA), President

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Word Wednesday

Welcome to

Word Wednesday

(WordWed) …

our KSS LIBRARY weekly sharing post dedicated to the creative use of language. I’m receiving staff submissions and collecting recommendations. Creative writers will be eligible for a modest draw prize and bragging rights. This weeks post is a reblog from an online course ETMOOC where the five card story was introduced. Cards(photos) from are generated and act as story starters. Text of the story that compliment the 5 images are at the bottom. – Al Smith

5 Card Flickr 1.5 is released! It has been heavily recoded, simplified, and now uses flickr API to fetch photos- see it in action at

It is modeled, or even conceptually copied, from Five Card Nancy game ( devised by comics guru Scott McCloud and the nifty web version at 741.5 Comics (

In the Nancy game players are dealt cards made from separate panels from the Ernie Bushmiller cartoon strip, and must try and create a coherent story from randomly drawn panels. It is a fabulous exercise in visual storytelling.

I wrote this web site to provide the same functionality, but with images drawn from a particular set of images in the photo sharing site given a particular tag.

So, in 5 Card Flickr, in 5 rounds you are dealt 5 random photo from public shared photos in flickr, and the player picks the best one to create a story. At the end of the round, they can save their story and annotate with comments that are saved on the Gallery portion of the web site.

In this implementation, you can set up multiple versions, e.g. a different flickr tag for a set of photos and stories (e.g. a part that does stories on all glickr photos tagged “dogs” and another one for all flickr stories tagged “cats”)

The site works by using the flickr API to poll for new photos with a given tag, and storying basic data for that photo locally so we can construct a a link to the thumbnail on flickr and a link to the original.

Also, version 1.5 features a “Tweet” button so users can send a twitter announcement for their own story, or one they have read on the site, a cut and paste HTML version of a story, and a new admin interface.(CogDog)

Images from Flickr Creative Commons

Five Card Story: Willpower

a #etmooc story created by mssanderson_ITS

flickr photo by ncaramanico

flickr photo by Henriksent

flickr photo by cogdogblog

flickr photo by mrsdkrebs

flickr photo by cogdogblog

Mmmmmmm… yum.

Can’t I just have one? Or twenty?

I’ll need to wear out my sneakers to work that off.

“Blahhh…Go ahead, we eat anything and we’re fine!”

Fruit substitute: the healthier choice.


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How to make RSA Animate style videos with your class…

How to make RSA Animate style videos with your class….

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Non Sequitur by Wiley

[pley-juh-riz-uh m, -jee-uh-riz-] Show IPA



an act or instance of using or closely imitating the language and thoughts of another author without authorization and the representation of that author’s work as one’s own, as by not crediting the original author: It is said that he plagiarized Thoreau’s plagiarism of a line written by Montaigne. Synonyms: appropriation, infringement, piracy, counterfeiting; theft, borrowing, cribbing, passing off.

a piece of writing or other work reflecting such unauthorized use or imitation: “These two manuscripts are clearly plagiarisms,” the editor said, tossing them angrily on the floor.

(licensed from Commoncraft)

Commoncraft videos:

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Reminder- virtual library resources available remotely

Student Online Gateways- brought to you by the KSS Virtual Library
Many resources are accessible from off campus but these subscription databases or reference resources and ebooks need authentication. Until our SD23 portal is running full force, use the login procedures to access from off campus.  ASK-A-LIBRARIAN if you get stuck. or DM @kssreads  or TXT 250-878-0578

Database Passwords are at  : User:  ksslibrary  Password:  ####### ASK  [

Some subscription services are purchased by the KSS Library Program. Other services (SD23) are provided by KSS.

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Anatomy of a Periodical

PASSWORDS: access>>


Anatomy of a Periodical

    1. Any reading material-  in technical use-  periodic means “at regular or predictable intervals, such as, magazines, newspapers literary journals, newsletters etc.  Not exclusive to print material, periodicals could now include blogs or digital e-publications.
    1. – general interest or hobby specialty can vary in amount of ads and amount of written story content
    2. – some hobby magazines are like self-help or how-to publications.  ie. model airplane
    1. -more and more quality reading material is available in digital format either for free ( with advertising ) or by a pay wall model
  4. DESIGN TIPS and PARTS of a MAGAZINE: sticky notes
  • Find example of strong TYPE
  • Find an example of sans-serif font
  • Find an example of pull-quote
  • Find example of strong IMAGE
  • Find example of strong 3 GRID layout
  • Find example of SIDEBAR
  • Find example of 2 fancy FOLIO
  • Find example of DROPSHADOW text of image
  • Find and example of 2 page spread

    1. TASK:  –Consumer Reports –  What is the best sedan car under $10,000? Answer Below….  OR –Vancouver Sun – Who recently died in a Kelowna motel room?  Answer Below…
  3. PROJECT: plan, create and build a mockup magazine.


1. Your cover should be a key selling point.

OK, so internal communications don’t actually get sold, but your cover should demonstrate what the magazine has to offer. Arresting and relevant imagery with great headlines and clear navigation can grab the reader’s attention and make sure your publication gets read. When you think you’ve finished the job, always take a step back, look at the cover and ask yourself if you would pick it up.

2. Create a natural pace and rhythm.

It’s a good idea to break the reader in with a few shorter stories up front. A simple news section can bridge the gap between your cover and major features and help the reader familiarise themselves with the magazine’s format and tone of voice. Presenting a weighty feature too early can be daunting and off-putting.

3. Stay on the grid.

The grid is the architecture of your magazine, the framework that keeps every page element in its place. It keeps columns consistent and anchors photographs, panels and boxes so they don’t float around. If you want something that offers more than just three basic columns, go for a much higher number such as 12. It might seem like structural madness at first, but, once you get used to it, you’ll see that it can divide down nicely into two, three, four and six.

4. Get the hierarchy right.

When dealing with spreads that have multiple stories or when grouping stories on a theme, take the time to look at the overall hierarchy. Make sure a lead item is given prominence. It’s easy to get this wrong and a lesser story can end up looking like the most attractive element. Use larger headlines, prime positioning and strong imagery to achieve a sense of importance.

5. The art of type.

For centuries, typesetters and letter-writers have concerned themselves with the size, shape and forms of characters. They mulled on the leading, kerning and tracking of each word on the page to ensure that all was legible and print-ready. In a way, the computer age has meant that this has become a lost skill. Whether headlines are the centrepiece of a spread or top smaller news items, take the time to concentrate on the letter spacing. Avoiding legibility issues, character clashes and unsightly gaps will make things easier on the reader’s eye and help with overall accessibility.

6. Don’t be afraid of white space.

When it comes to internal publications, which can be copy-heavy, just thinking about leaving blank space on the page can ring client alarm bells. Equally, stuffing as much as you can onto each and every page may leave the reader overwhelmed. Experiment with white space in your new multi-column layout. Or on larger features, try starting your article just above the halfway point of the page. You’ll be surprised how much a little bit of white space helps to soften the reader’s eye into the layout.

7. Be sensible with your colours.

Employee publications often have their colour palettes dictated by the branding of the parent company, but that doesn’t mean you should saturate every page with the same vivid purple as the company’s logo. Think about colour from the reader’s point of view. Avoid assaulting their senses. Instead, use your colour scheme to create warm, friendly and appealing environments, both for your readers and your content. A spread that’s so bright and lurid that it actually hurts the eyes simply won’t get read.

8. Avoid the grey mountains.

Any reader faced with two pages of solid text will see something of a mountain to climb. Look for ways to give them a few footholds by breaking up the text with interesting box-outs, panels or tables. The more you can break the information down into manageable pieces, the more likely it is to get read. Crossheads and pull-quotes will not only break up the grey, but can make the article more appealing and help the mountain seem worth scaling.

9. Every picture tells a story.

But I’ll have to give you the abridged version. Best practice for photography and illustration and getting the most from your budget warrants a top ten list of its own. To be brief: use images that help convey the content and attract the reader. Imagery should always be relevant and of good enough quality to at least look professional. If you think a photograph looks bad, consider not using it. Your editor wouldn’t include a bad article just because they had it on file, would they?

10. Achieve a healthy balance.

So you’ve got all your pages designed and laid out according to your flatplan. Now take a look at the whole magazine. Does it flow properly? As you go through, do you get a sense of rhythm and pace? Does the article on page 5 sit too heavily alongside the lighter piece on page 4? Have you achieved variation, or does every page and image box look the same? Does one page feel crammed and claustrophobic while another seems empty and spread out? If anything feels like that to you, it will to your readers too. Take the time to address these issues and your end product will benefit.


Typography is the art of arranging type and type design. The arrangement of type involves the selection of typefaces, point size, line length, line spacing, and the adjustment of spaces between groups of letters (tracking) and between pairs of letters (kerning). Typography comes from the Greek words typos, which means “mark, figure” and grapho, which means “I write.” It is basically the discipline of shaping written information; thus it can be applied to anything which has to do with text, including web design. Authors write the text, designers and typographers manage the typography, and users read through it.


Filed under Helpful Material, LIBGuides, Periodicals

Geek Out @ your library


Report teens look to libraries for tech support#bced #sd23ed #kssed sure do KSSLChas to have answers

— KSS Library (@kssreads) March 2, 2012

Geek Out @ your library

CHICAGO– As Web-enabled tools such as Facebook, texting and smartphone apps become a staple of teen culture, school and public libraries from coast to coast will throw open their physical and virtual doors to teens and showcase technological resources available @ your library during Teen Tech Week™, March 4 – 10, 2012. Teens by the thousands will improve their digital literacy skills as they take advantage of free library social networking and digital media workshops, e-books, databases, online homework help, gaming tournaments and much more.


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Story Checklist: Tips to Perfect Your Story

via (source)

Story Checklist: Tips to Perfect Your Story

Before you ship your query to an agent or publisher, take a long look at your manuscript and see if there are last minute changes to be made. This checklist will save you a lot of rejections!
1. Was the premise proved? If a writer cannot remember what the premise is, or never had one, the story is in big trouble. If the synopsis does not state the premise and does not indicate how it is proved, a publisher will not even read the manuscript. The premise is the reason for the story. It is the purpose which guides every decision made by the characters.If the writer set out to prove the premise, self-sacrifice leads to happiness, has that been done? Was the outcome of the story dependent on the self-sacrifice of the hero or heroine, or both? Was the resolution a matter of luck, fate, or hard work? Even if the story is built with scenes aimed at proving the initial premise, if the actual outcome of the book does not relate to that premise, organic unity has not been achieved. The story will fall apart.

2. Will the reader be touched emotionally? Can the reader truly identify with the hero? Are all characters sufficiently developed for the reader to care deeply about them? Are they sympathetic? Have they acted inconsistently in any scenes, doing something mean or stupid and alienating the reader? If so, have they redeemed themselves or suffered the consequences?

3. Do the characters ring true? The hero and heroine of a romance must have opposing traits to make them interesting and to support conflict. The same can be said of heroes and villains in any story. Are the characters too much alike? Does the action of the story allow them to display their characteristics to the maximum? What are their ruling passions? Are they well motivated in every scene? Would they really behave as they did in every circumstance? 

4. Did the characters change? Was there growth? Did the outcome of the story evolve as a result of the changes in the characters? (The main characters of any novel should grow and become changed by the events of the story. They should discover new strengths and virtues along the way.)

5. Were the characters securely bound? If the protagonist and antagonist, or the hero and heroine, could have just walked away from the situation to avoid the conflict, the risks were not real and the story will be unsatisfying.

6. Were the characters plunged into rising conflicts? Did the action lag or conflicts become static or jumping?

7. Are all the conflicts resolved? This is not just question for crime novels. Were all the loose ends tied, or is there more story to be told?

8. Was there variety? Are the action scenes repetitious? Are the love scenes distinct?

9. Did writer start the story in the right place? Was the situation set up so carefully in Chapter One that the reader will lose interest before the action begins? Where does the interesting part start? That is where the story should begin! The reader should be plunged into the action. 

10. Do the events of the story grow out of each other? The outcome of scene one should lead to scene two, etc. The reader should be drawn from one conflict to the next with an understanding of the progression of the events and the cause and effect relationship between the scenes and sequels.

11. Does the climax have impact? Is it revolutionary? Was there a surprise? Is it satisfying? Was the emotional impact powerful?

12. Was there irony or poetic justice? Could there have been? This is a very satisfying element to a reader.

13. Were the characters fully revealed? Will the reader come to know the hero and heroine well? Are various emotional states explored? (Some action and thriller books have the hero angry from page one to the end. That is a static situation, regardless of the intensity events.)

14. Are there extraneous bits of business or anticlimactic events? They should be cut out to keep the writing tight.

15. Did the writer choose the best narrative voice? Will the narrative get on the readers nerves? When the narrative is done in the voice of a character, rather than in the authors natural voice, it may sound right for the first few chapters, then become increasingly distracting.

16. Was the right point of view employed? Would the story be better if told from another point of view? Was the choice of point of view too restrictive? For example, romance novels tend to be told from the point of view of the heroine, but that is not a law. The story might be better told from the point of view of the hero, or could have greater depth if more than one point of view were used. Changes of points of view within a scene are confusing to the reader, but between scenes, or with each new chapter, the writer has a choice.

17. Are flashbacks necessary? They should be avoided if there is any way to tell the story without them. Flashbacks are gimmicky and bring the action of the story to a grinding halt.

18. Is there a prologue? Can it be eliminated? Prologues are a sign of not being able to fully integrate the elements of the story. They run up a red flag to editors who will keep looking for other signs of amateurism. If the story can stand on its own, the prologues should be eliminated. (The same goes for epilogues.)

19. Have conflicts been avoided which could to be exploited? Stories are built on conflict. A writer should never pass up the chance to use one to good advantage. Have all significant actions been described fully? Good writers will show, not tell. That makes readers feel they have witnessed the events.

20. Were symbols used? Symbolism can be a powerful tool, but all symbols must be appropriate and must have a reason which is significant to the story.

21. Does each scene have a rising conflict? Is it as exciting as possible? Does it move the story forward? Is it essential? Any scene which does not adequately support the story should be cut. 

22. Does every line of dialogue enhance characterization and further the story? Dialogue in a story does not have to supply a response for every comment, or reflect the way people converse in real life. A few comments or questions may convey the meaning sufficiently. Is all dialogue original, colorful and emotional? Strong and profane language should be avoided, even if it is appropriate for the characters. Profanity tends to have a stronger impact on the written page than in normal conversation. Often, it stops the action, which should be avoided.

23. Is the writing sensual? Does it appeal to all five senses? Can the reader taste, feel, see, hear and smell what the characters do? Are readers drawn into any 6th sense situation when appropriate?

24. Is the writing more active than passive? Use of active verbs, not passive ones, will make a greater impact. Characters must actually do things, not just be the recipient of action. (Look out for the words had, was, have, did, and infinitive forms…to ______ They slow down the action.)Action should take place on stage so to speak, not just be described as having occurred in the past or in another place. 

25. Adjectives and adverbs should be used with a light touch. Writing sounds more powerful with fewer modifiers and stronger verbs and more descriptive nouns. However, the texture or tone of the story may be enhanced with more description. The writer needs to find the proper balance.


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